1. Simple Present Tense ( S + Infinitive / Infinitive(s/es) )
- Stating that the confessed acts of habit.
‘She usually eats noodle for breakfast’
- Stating the general truth that can not be denied.
‘The sun rises in the east’
Note : Infinitive does not change if preceded by a helping verb (can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would, do, does, did).
‘He can speak english’
2. Present Continous Tense ( S + to be (am, is, are) + Present Participle(ing+form) )
- Stating that the ongoing actions.
‘I am studying english’
- Stating a temporary action
‘She is reading now, but will write soon’
- Stating that the act referred to in the future.
‘They are writing again in a few week’
3. Present Perfect Tense ( S + have/has + Past Participle )
- Stating yan activities conducted the past and still have something to do with the present, but it did not last.
‘I have taught english for one week’ à time the incident is not clear
- Stating the events that happened.
‘She has eaten’
- Indicates an action replay at the time was not necessarily before now. The words are often used : before, already, ever, never, yet.
‘I’ve heard before’
‘She has never been there before’
- Indicates actions completed in a short time. The words are often used: at last, finally, just, recently.
‘The time at last arrived’
4. Present Perfect Continous Tense ( S + have/has +been + Present Participle )
- Stating that the act which started at the time of the past and still persists today.
‘We have been waiting for you since eight o’clock’
5. Past Tense ( S + Past Tense )
- Stating that the act that was completed at the past (the time obviously)
‘She came here last month’
6. Past Continous Tense ( She + was/were + Present Participle)
- Stating that the act had already started and is still going on when the other acts followed in the past..
‘When I came to his home, he was playing computer’
- Stating that the act was happening in the past
‘He was watching TV all afternoon yesterday’
7. Past Perfect Tense ( S + had + Past Participle )
- Stating what she had done before the other actions performed on the past.
‘When my mother went, I had cleaned that room’.
‘He told me has name after I had asked him twice’
Note : Past Perfect should be used if time is an act of the past sooner than other actions.
The first deed is done, we use Past Perfect, and the second act we use Past Tense.
8. Past Perfect Continous ( S + had + been + Present Participle )
- Demonstrate ongoing actions in the past.
‘When I finished my dinner, he had been playing guitar’
‘When I came to Surabaya in 1980, he had already been living there about five years’
9. Future Tense ( S + will/shall + Infinitive )
- Declare acts to be done in the future.
‘She will review that lesson’
‘I shall go wih you’
10. Future Continous Tense ( S + will/shall + be + Present Participle )
- Indicates actions that will occur when it is clear
‘At this time tomorrow, I shall be getting exam’
‘He will be studying at eight o’clock tomorrow’
11. Future Perfect Tense ( S + will/shall + have + Past Participle )
- Stating that the act had begun in the past and soon will be completed in time to come.
‘By next week, I shall have read this book’
‘Shinta will have done this work by the end of this week’
12. Future Perfect Continous Tense ( S + will/shall + have + been + Present Participle )
- Such as Future Perfect, but the act is likely to continue in the future.
‘By the end of this year, we shall have been studying Korean language for three years’
13. Past Future Tense ( S + would/should + Infinitive )
- Stating that the act will be done in the past
‘They would go to Balik Papan the following day’
‘He would buy a car the previous day’
14. Past Future Continous Tense ( S + would/should + be + Present Pariciple )
- Stating that will act being done in the past.
‘I should be taking an examination at this time the following day’
15. Past Future Perfect Tense ( S + would/should + have + Past Participle )
- Stating assumptions that might not happen because the conditions are certainly not be met, but only as an assumption that the requirements are fulfilled in the past.
‘He would have graduated, if he had studied hard’
In fact : He didn’t graduated.
16. Past Future Perfect ( S + would/should + have + been + Present Participle )
- Like Future Perfect Tense, but in the past.
‘By last Lebaran, I should have been working at that office for five years’
‘By the end of the month last semester, Zahra would have been studying computeritation at Gunadarma University for three years’
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